Glossory

Algorithm
A formula or set of steps for solving a particular problem. To be an algorithm, a set of rules must be unambiguous and have a clear stopping point.

Algorithmic Results
The listings provided by most Search Engines based on their proprietary algorithms. In general, Algorithmic Results are displayed below some number of paid listings on the search results page. In contrast to paid listings, algorithmic results are listed by a search engine because they are relevant to the user’s query, whether they have been paid for or not. Also called Organic Listings.

Alt attribute
The alt attribute is used in HTML and XHTML documents to specify alternative text (alt text) that is to be rendered when the element to which it is applied cannot be rendered. In HTML 4.01, the attribute is required for the img and area tags. It is optional for the input tag and the deprecated applet tag.
The syntax of the alt attribute is:
<img alt=”…”>
<area alt=”…”>
or
<input alt=”…”>

Analytics
Analytics is the application of computer technology and statistics to solve problems in business and industry. Analytics is carried out within an information system: whilst, in the past, statistics and mathematics could be studied without computers and software, analytics has evolved from the application of computers to the analysis of data and this takes place within an information system or software environment.

Anchor text
The anchor text, link label or link title is the visible, clickable text in a hyperlink. The words contained in the anchor text can determine the ranking that the page will receive by search engines.

Backlinks
Backlinks are incoming links to a website or web page. Inbound links were originally important (prior to the emergence of search engines) as a primary means of web navigation; today their significance lies in search engine optimization (SEO).

Banned
Also known as delisted or blacklisted, a banned site is a URL that has been removed from a search engine’s Index, typically for engaging in Black Hat SEO. Banned sites are ignored by search engines.

Banner ad
A graphical web advertising unit, typically measuring 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall (i.e. 468×60).

Black hat SEO
Black hat SEO is the use of techniques that are unacceptable to search engines to boost a page’s position in search results. These techniques are intended to trick search engines into giving pages higher positions in search results, and they have no benefit to site visitors. The goal is to improve search engine result positions no matter what it takes to do it.

Blacklist
A blacklist (or black list) is a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition. As a verb, to blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize a person from a certain social circle. Conversely, a whitelist is a list or compilation identifying entities that are accepted, recognized, or privileged.

Broken links
Broken links are like stop signs to search engine robots. They use the links on the pages of your site to follow to other pages at your site.

Click fraud
Click fraud is a new type of Internet scam that targets advertising companies rather than consumers. On pay-per-click advertising, a company publishes a small ad in front pages such as Google or Yahoo, which offer an ad service.

Click-through
The process of clicking through an online advertisement to the advertiser’s destination.

Clickthrough rate
Clickthrough rate or CTR is a way of measuring the success of an online advertising campaign. A CTR is obtained by dividing the “number of users who clicked on an ad” on a web page by the “number of times the ad was delivered” (impressions).

Cloaking
Cloaking is a black hat search engine optimization (SEO) technique in which the content presented to the search engine spider is different to that presented to the user’s browser. This is done by delivering content based on the IP addresses or the User-Agent HTTP header of the user requesting the page. When a user is identified as a search engine spider, a server-side script delivers a different version of the web page, one that contains content not present on the visible page. The purpose of cloaking is to deceive search engines so they display the page when it would not otherwise be displayed.

Conversion rate
conversion rate is the ratio of visitors who convert casual content views or website visits into desired actions based on subtle or direct requests from marketers, advertisers, and content creators. The Conversion rate is defined as follows:

Cost per acquisition (CPA)
Cost per acquisition (CPA) is another word for cost per action and is used interchangeably with this term. CPA measures the advertiser’s per conversion cost from start to finish, from the inclusion to the search engine results to creating interesting landing pages that grab the attention of the visitor. This means cost per acquisition measures how much it costs in advertising to convert one person from a visitor to a client for the company. Advertisers prefer this type of paid inclusion, because they are only paying for when the desired outcome is achieved. The desired outcome of a conversion is generally a purchase from the advertiser, or a form being filled out by a visitor so that the visitor’s name and email address can be added to a list of potential clients.

Cost Per Action (CPA)
Cost Per Action or CPA (sometimes known as Pay Per Action or PPA) is an online advertising pricing model, where the advertiser pays for each specified action (a purchase, a form submission, and so on) linked to the advertisement. Online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying actions such as sales or registrant.

Cost-per-click (CPC)
The cost or cost-equivalent paid per click-through.

Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM)
Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM) is a methods of evaluating media efficiency. CPM is a ratio based on how much it costs to reach a thousand people. CPP is a ratio based on how much it costs to buy one rating point, or one percent of the population in an area being evaluated.

Crawler
A web crawler (also known as web spider) is a program which browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner. A web crawler is one type of bot. Web crawlers not only keep a copy of all the visited pages for later processing – for example by a search engine but also index these pages to make the search narrower.

Delisted
The removal of a listed security from the exchange on which it trades. Stock is removed from an exchange because the company for which the stock is issued, whether voluntarily or involuntarily,is not in compliance with the listing requirements of the exchange.

Description tag
The description tag is a piece of html code that’s meant to give a short – you guessed it – description of a web page. The description tag is at the top of the page in the <HEAD>section of the code.
In code, a description tag looks like this:
<meta name=”description” content=”Short, riveting description of your web page.” />

Directory
A network service that identifies all resources on a network and makes them accessible to users and applications. Resources include e-mail addresses, computers, and peripheral devices such as printers. Ideally, the directory service should make the physical network topology and protocols transparent so that a user on a network can access any resource without knowing where or how it is physically connected.

Dynamic content
Web site or blog content that changes frequently and engages the reader, dynamic content can include animations, video or audio.

Flash Optimization
Flash is a vector graphics-based animation program developed by Macromedia. Most corporate sites feature Flash movies/animation, yet because search engine Crawlers were designed to index HTML text, sites that favor Flash over text are difficult or even impossible for crawlers to read. Flash Optimization is the process of reworking the Flash movie and surrounding HTML code to be more “crawlable” for Search Engines.

Gateway Page
Gateway Page are web pages that are created to rank high in search engines for particular phrases with purpose to seduce or hoax you to watch another page. They are also known as bridge pages, portal pages, zebra pages, jump pages, gateway pages, entry pages and by other names.

Google AdSense
Google AdSense is an advertising program that was launched in the middle of 2003 by Google, the popular search engine. Google acts as an intermediary between a vast number of advertisers and an equally impressive number of website owners.

Google Adwords
Google’s text-based system for advertising on its site and its partner sites is called Adwords. The service allows you to create your own ads, choose keywords to help match your ads to your audience, and control the cost of your advertising?you pay only when people click on your ad (a cost per click plan). Anyone wishing to promote a product on Google can enroll in this program.

Gray Hat SEO
Gray hat SEO is SEO techniques that take more risks than white hat SEO techniques but aren’t likely to get your site banned from search engines (although a search engine penality could result). They’re questionable SEO techniques but not in the same category as black hat SEO techniques. However, what’s considered gray hat SEO today might be black hat SEO next year.

Hidden text
Hidden text is computer text that is displayed in such a way as to not be readable. Hidden text is most commonly achieved by setting the font color to transparent, rendering the text invisible unless the user highlights it.

Hit
Hit is a somewhat misleading measure of traffic to a web site. One hit is recorded for each file request in a web server’s access log. If a user visits a page with four images, one hit will be recorded for each graphic image file plus another for the page’s HTML file. A better measure of traffic volume is the number of pages/HTML files accessed.

HTML
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) is the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is not a strict subset. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.

Hyperlink
An element in an electronic document that links to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document. Typically, you click on the hyperlink to follow the link. Hyperlinks are the most essential ingredient of all hypertext systems, including the World Wide Web.

Inbound Links (Backlinks)
Having links from other websites to yours is a critical part of search engine optimization. As well as the obvious bonus of having people follow these links to your site, inbound links provide the following benefits:
• Search engine robots follow links between websites. The more inbound links you have, the more often robots will visit your site.
• Many search engines count links to your site as “votes” for you. They assume that if lots of websites link to your site it must be high quality. Page Rank is Google’s system of counting links.

Impression
It is said that you never get a second chance to make a first impression. Well, in the wonderful world of the World Wide Web, publishers have thousands of chances each day. An impression is counted each time a Web page is shown to a visitor. Advertisers measure the reach of their ads by tracking ad impressions, or the number of times their ads are shown. The revenue that publishers generate based on 1,000 impressions is called CPM.

Keyword Marketing
When a person performs a search through one of the major search engines, he typically types in keywords to find what he is looking for. Most regular internet users do not think about this when they type in their query. The results for the search show up on the results page, with the most relevant information typically towards the top of the list.

Keyword submission
Keyword submission is an all-inclusive term for the keyword research/selection, bid cost assessment and budgeting that companies undertake to begin Pay-Per-Click keyword campaigns with advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Yahoo! Sponsored Search and Microsoft AdCenter.

Landing Page
There seems to be a lot of talk these days about landing pages. If you are new to the concept, you are probably wondering what the heck they are, and what makes them different from any other page on your site. So let’s start from the start.

Link
Also known as hyperlink or HTML link, a link is an image or portion of text that when clicked on by a user opens another web page or jumps the browser to a different portion of the current page. Inbound Links with keyword-relevant Link Text are an important part of Search Engine Optimization Strategy.

Link bait
Link bait is any content or feature, within a website, designed specifically to gain attention or encourage others to link to the website. Matt Cutts defines link bait as anything “interesting enough to catch people’s attention. “Link bait can be an extremely powerful form of marketing as it is viral in nature.

Link exchange
A link exchange is a confederation of websites that operates similarly to a web ring. Webmasters register their web sites with a central organization, that runs the exchange, and in turn receive from the exchange HTML code which they insert into their web pages.

Link farm
A link farm is any group of web sites that all hyperlink to every other site in the group. Although some link farms can be created by hand, most are created through automated programs and services.

Link text
Link text is, quite simply, the words on a webpage that are also a hyperlink to another page.

Local search
Local search is the use of specialized Internet search engines that allow users to submit geographically constrained searches against a structured database of local business listings. Is the use of specialized Internet search engines that allow users to submit geographically constrained searches against a structured database of local business listings.

Marketing Analytics – Marketing analytics is a branch of Analytics concerned specifically with marketing-related information from organic and paid search engine traffic, such as Unique Visitors, keyword-generated sales, Cost-Per-Click advertising, Click Fraud, Search Engine Marketing, etc.

Meta description tags
Meta description tags are not a major factor search engines consider when ranking sites, they should not be left off the page. Both the meta keywords tag and the meta description tag contribute to your search engine ranking, and the meta description tag influences the likelihood that a person will actually click on the search engine results page and visit your site.

META Keywords Tag
The META Keywords Tag is where you list keywords and keyword phrases that you’ve targeted for that specific page.

META Robots Tag
The Robots META Tag is meant to provide users who cannot upload or control the /robots.txt file at their websites, with a last chance to keep their content out of search engine indexes and services.

Meta search engine
A metasearch engine is a search tool[1] that sends user requests to several other search engines and/or databases and aggregates the results into a single list or displays them according to their source.

Meta tags
Meta tags are HTML codes that are inserted into the header on a web page, after the title tag. In the context of search engine optimization, when people refer to meta tags, they are usually referring to the meta description tag and the meta keywords tag.

Natural Listings
The results lists, where the positions weren’t bought (like e.g. sponsor links), of a search engine are called natural listings. The task of search engine optimization is that your page gets the best possible position. In order to achieve this position, there is a whole series of techniques, such as linking to other relevant pages or the optimization of the used keywords. Since search engines exist, there is a technological race between the robots and the search engine optimizers, in which it is about to beat the other one.

Natural search engine optimization (SEO)
Natural search engine optimization (SEO), also known as organic search engine optimization, is a specialized process that involves analyzing your website’s underlying code, architecture and visible content and making enhancements so that the site is returned more prominently in the natural search results of spider–based search engines (such as Google and MSN).

Organic optimization
Organic optimization (page and link) is largely dependent on each keyword and the websites that are currently occupying top positions. In order to quantify the amount of organic optimization (page and link) required to support a top position, each keyword and respective competitiveness needs to be evaluated.

Outbound-link
An outbound-link (OBL) is a link from your website to another website. Outbound links can add value to your site by providing useful information to users without you having to create the content. It is difficult for a single website to be comprehensive about a subject area. At the same time outbound links are a potential jumping off point for users and also provide PageRank for the target page. Some search engines algorithms actually place value on sites with many outbound links.

PageRank
PageRank is a link analysis algorithm, named after Larry Page, used by the Google Internet search engine that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of “measuring” its relative importance within the set.

Paid inclusion
Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index. Also known as sponsored listings, paid inclusion products are provided by most search engine companies, the most notable being Google.

Paid Listings
Paid Listings, as opposed to Natural Listings or Organic Listings, are sites that appear on a Results Page because money was paid to the search engine for inclusion and/or position. Paid listings are used as an all-inclusive term for the practices of Paid Inclusion and Paid Placement.

Paid Placement
Paid placement is a program in which advertisers’ listings are guaranteed to appear on a Results Page when particular Keywords are searched. The ranking of paid placement listings is determined by competitive bidding. Unlike Paid Inclusion listings, paid placement listings are usually displayed separately from Natural Listings and are labeled as advertisements or sponsored links. Google and Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture) are two of the largest paid placement search networks.

Pay per click (PPC)
Pay per click (PPC) is an Internet advertising model used on websites, where advertisers pay their host only when their ad is clicked. With search engines, advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market.

Position
Also known as rank, position is the place a website occupies relative to the first listing on an Algorithmic Results page in response to a Keyword query. The first page displays Listings in the one through ten positions, the second page eleven through twenty, etc. Businesses trying to get their site into a top ten position will often employ a Professional Search Engine Optimization company. Consumer studies have shown that most search engine users click only on sites that occupy the top ten positions.

Reciprocal Link Exchange – A reciprocal link exchange is a quid pro quo arrangement or link exchange between two sites. Reciprocal links usually lead to the home page of the associate site.

Registration
Also known as search engine registration or search engine submission, registration is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Registration is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Results Page – Also known as search engine results page, the results page is the collection of ranked Listings displayed in response to a search engine Query.

Robot
Also known as Crawler or Spider, a robot is a search engine program that “crawls” the web, collecting data, following links, making copies of new and updated sites, and storing URLs in the search engine’s Index. This allows search engines to provide faster and more up-to-date listings.

Robots.txt
Also known as robots exclusion protocol, Robots.txt is a text file stored in a site’s root directory that tells a search engine Crawler which site pages and sub-folders should not be included in the search engine Index. However, there is no guarantee that a Crawler will comply with this request. Robots.txt is an alternative to a Meta Robots Tag or password protection.

Search Engine
A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web and FTP servers. The search results are generally presented in a list of results and are often called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files.

Search Engine Marketing
Search engine marketing, or SEM, is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of search engine optimization, paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion.  Search Engine Marketing is the promotion of an internet website resulting in highly visible listings in the major Search Engines.

Search Engine Placement
Search engine placement means the tactics used by Site Optimization firms to improve their clients’ Rank. The term search engine placement is sometimes used to mean the Position of a website on a Results Page.

Search Engine Positioning
The term search engine positioning can be used in two different ways. The first is to describe the ordering process of indexed websites being ranked by a search engine Algorithm in response to a Query. The second refers to the use of Search Engine Optimization to achieve a higher search engine Position.

Search Engine Promotion
Also known as Internet promotion, website marketing or website promotion, Internet promotion refers to all methods employed by a company or individual to promote a website and increase its Position and PageRank.

Search Engine Ranking Report
A search engine ranking report is a monthly, weekly or daily report of the Position of a company’s website listing in relation to their top Keywords. Position Reporting enables companies to monitor the success of an SEO strategy or Cost-Per-Click advertising campaign.

Search Engine Registration
Also known as search engine submission or web submission, search engine registration is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Search engine registration is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Search Engine Results Page (SERPs)
Also known as a results page, the search engine results page is the collection of ranked Listings displayed in response to a search engine Query.

Search Engine Submission
Also known as search engine registration or web submission, search engine submission is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Search engine submission is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Search Terms
Also known as keywords or query terms, search terms are the word(s) or phrase(s) a user enters into a search engine’s Query box. A Search Engine Results Page (SERP) ranks indexed sites according to how relevant the Search Engine deems them to the search terms that were queried. One of the most important SEO Strategies companies can employ is to optimize their site pages with content that contains targeted search terms relevant to their products or industry.

Shopping Search
Shopping search engines or search engines with a shopping feature (such as Google Product Search, formerly known as Froogle) allow users to comparison shop by providing lists of sellers and prices in response to a product Query. Some shopping search sites require Paid Inclusion or offer Paid Placement.

Site Optimization
Also known as Internet promotion, optimization services or search engine placement service, site optimization refers to all of the methods a Search Engine Optimization Company uses to improve a site’s Position and Page Rank and increase its Click-Through Rate and Conversion Rate.

Spam
Spam refers to any and all Search Engine Marketing techniques that violate search engine guidelines or attempt to gain increased Rank for a site using content that is irrelevant, deceptive or of little value to users. Types of spam include Hidden Text, content that contains nonsensical Keyword repetition, deceptive Cloaking or numerous Doorway Pages that redirect users to the same Landing Page. If a search engine detects spamming the offending site will be Blacklisted or lose Position. Spam is a Black Hat SEO technique.

Spider
Also known as Crawler or Robot, a spider is a search engine program that “crawls” the web, collecting data, following links, making copies of new and updated sites, and storing URLs in the search engine’s Index. This allows search engines to provide faster and more up-to-date listings.

Title tag
The title tag has been – and probably will always be – one of the most important factors in achieving high search engine rankings.

Three-way link exchange
A three-way link exchange refers to a kind of reciprocal link exchange among three domains instead of two. A reciprocal link exchange that is so popular today among webmasters is mostly a two-way linking.

Unique visitor
A unique visitor is a statistic describing a unit of traffic to a website, counting each visitor only once in the time frame of the report. This statistic is relevant to site publishers and advertisers as a measure of a site’s true audience size, equivalent to the term “Reach” used in other media.

Web analytics
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.[1]
Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how the traffic to the website changed after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides data on the number of visitors, page views, etc. to gauge the traffic and popularity trends which helps doing the market research.

Website Marketing
Website marketing program  focused to gain free traffic from Google, Yahoo, Bing and other top search engines.

Website optimization
Website optimization is the process of specifically designing your webpages to rank high in the Search Engines. If you’re serious about your business, optimizing your webpages is a must.

Website promotion
Website promotion is the continuing process to promote a website to bring more visitors to the website. Many techniques such as web content development, search engine optimization (also known as SEO), and search engine submission, are used to increase the traffic to a site.

Website Submission
website submission services are performed in strict accordance with the guidelines established by each search engine or directory.

White Hat SEO
In search engine optimization (SEO) terminology, White Hat SEO refers to the usage of SEO strategies, techniques and tactics that focus on a human audience opposed to search engines and completely follows search engine rules and policies.

XML
XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create common information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web, intranet, and elsewhere. XML can be used by any individual or group of individuals or companies that wants to share information in a consistent way.

XML Feed
An XML feed is a form of Paid Inclusion or Search Engine Submission in which an XML document is used to provide a search engine with information about multiple web pages. An XML feed is particularly useful for multimedia sites or database sites that draw a variety of relevant search queries.

Automated Reviews System